Medicare is a critical component of retirement planning, yet it’s fraught with complexities that can lead to costly mistakes. Understanding Medicare’s nuances becomes beneficial and essential as we age. In this blog, we’ll explore some of the common pitfalls of Medicare and weigh the pros and cons of Traditional Medicare versus Medicare Advantage plans.
Medicare Pitfalls to avoid
HSA Contributions Post-Medicare Enrollment
Once you start drawing Social Security retirement benefits and are automatically enrolled in Medicare at age 65, contributions to a health savings account (HSA) must cease. However, if you’re covered under a spouse’s employer plan and your spouse is under 65, they can still contribute. Ignorance of this rule could lead to an IRS audit or loss of tax-deferred growth opportunities.
Late Enrollment Penalties
Failing to enroll in Medicare Part B or a Medicare prescription drug plan when first eligible can trigger steep penalties. For instance, a 25-month delay in prescription drug coverage could mean a permanent monthly penalty of 25% based on the national average premium. Similarly, for Part B, a 10% penalty is tacked on for each year you delay enrollment.
Income-Related Premium Adjustments
High earners, beware. If your income was over $103,000 in 2022 and you file taxes separately, you could face a higher Part B premium. This is determined by the Income-related Monthly Adjustment Amount (IRMAA), which looks at your tax return from two years prior. For joint filers, the income threshold for higher IRMAA premiums is $206,000, again looking back to your 2022 tax returns.
Income-Related Premium Adjustments
Withdrawals from retirement accounts or a property sale can increase your taxable income and, consequently, your Medicare premiums due to IRMAA. Timing significant taxable events before age 63 can help avoid this.
If you retired in 2022 or have one of the seven approved reasons: death of a spouse, marriage; divorce or annulment; work reduction; work stoppage (e.g., retirement); loss of income from income-producing property; or loss or reduction of certain pension income, you are likely eligible to have your IRMAA premiums reduced through the submission of Form SSA-44 found here.
Remember that taxable realized gains on investments, a sale of a second home or investment property, and Roth conversion, are generally unacceptable reasons for IMRAA reduction considerations.
Ignoring Open Enrollment
Each year, from October 15th to December 7th, you can review and change your Medicare plans. Not doing so can be costly if your current plan changes its formulary and no longer covers your medication or significantly increases the cost.
Traditional Medicare vs. Medicare Advantage: Pros and Cons
Traditional Medicare (Parts A and B) Pros:
- Flexibility: You can visit any doctor or hospital that accepts Medicare.
- Nationwide Coverage: It’s ideal for those who travel frequently within the U.S.
- No Referrals Needed: You can see specialists without a referral.
Traditional Medicare (Parts A and B) Cons:
- Gaps in Coverage: It doesn’t cover everything (e.g., most dental, vision, and hearing services).
- No True Out-of-Pocket Maximum: You could pay more out-of-pocket if you have significant medical needs. However, selecting a Medicare “Medigap” policy can be purchased to create a true out–of–pocket maximum.
- Separate Drug Coverage: You must enroll in a standalone Part D plan for prescription drugs.
Medicare Advantage (Part C) Pros:
- All-in-One Option: Plans often include Part D prescription drug coverage and extra dental, vision, and hearing benefits.
- Out-of-Pocket Maximum: There’s a cap on what you pay out-of-pocket each year for covered services.
- Extra Perks: Some plans offer gym memberships, transportation to medical appointments, and over-the-counter allowances.
Medicare Advantage (Part C) Cons:
- Provider Networks: You may be restricted to a network of doctors and facilities.
- Service Area Restrictions: Coverage is often limited to a specific geographic area.
- Referrals Required: You may need a referral to see specialists.
In addition, if you switch back to traditional Medicare, Part A, B, & D, from a Medicare Advantage Plan, you may be subject to medical underwriting from insurers. Medicare supplement policies are a “guaranteed issue” during the six months of open enrollment beginning at age 65. So if you have a pre-existing condition, be careful. Medigap policies and guarantee issue protections vary by state, which you can check here.
In conclusion, while Medicare provides essential health coverage, it’s not without its complexities. Understanding the potential pitfalls and the differences between Traditional Medicare and Medicare Advantage plans is crucial. Each year, take the time to review your health needs and financial situation to ensure you’re making the most informed decision. And remember, consulting with a Medicare advisor can help you navigate these choices and avoid costly mistakes.
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